Saturday, June 15, 2024

South Africa: Can SA Meet Its Diabetes Targets, and Would We Know If We Do?

South Africa has the highest prevalence of diabetes in Africa, according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). In 2021, an estimated one in nine adults in the country had diabetes and one in three were at high risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for about 90% of diabetes cases in the country.

There are two kinds of diabetes, Type 1 which is an autoimmune condition someone is born with, normally caused by an abnormality in the pancreas and Type 2, which generally occurs as a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle, inactivity, and eating unhealthy food. It is also seen in older people who develop a resistance to insulin. There is also what is known as gestational diabetes, a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which could be permanent or go away after birth, and puts women at high risk for developing Type 2 diabetes later in life. In the below diabetes refers to Type 2.

The 90-60-50 targets

South Africa’s National Strategic Plan (NSP) for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) (2022-2027) sets three targets for diabetes, using a cascading approach to measure how well the country is doing on screening, treating, and controlling diabetes. This is similar to the much-quoted UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for HIV. Spotlight recently reported on a similar set of targets for hypertension.

South Africa’s targets for diabetes are as follows:

90% of people over 18 should know whether they have raised blood glucose levels.

60% of people with raised blood glucose levels should receive interventions.

50% of people receiving interventions for diabetes should have controlled blood glucose levels.

‘Step in the right direction’

Professor Bob Mash, a family physician and the Head of the Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care at Stellenbosch University, says he likes the plan, that it’s well written with nice targets, but that the issue with this plan will be whether or not it actually materialises into action and improvement. He adds that NCDs, specifically diabetes, haven’t received as much attention and resources as communicable diseases like HIV and TB, and this needs to change for progress to be made in meeting the targets.

The targets are a step in the right direction, and it is essential to have clear targets in order to assess where the country stands and what it needs to achieve to reduce the burden of diabetes, according to Professor Andre Kengne, the director of NCD research at the South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC). He was part of the planning committee for this version of the NSP.

He adds that the targets as they stand are merely a starting point and will need to be assessed and improved on at a later stage.

However, he points out that if nothing is done to prevent the millions in the country who have pre-diabetes – meaning they are at high risk for progressing to Type 2 diabetes in future – from progressing to diabetes we’ll forever be chasing the targets set out in the NSP.

South Africa has the highest prevalence of diabetes in Africa, according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF).

“If we are acting on detecting people with diabetes and treating them while doing nothing for those who are at risk currently, then we’re not going to succeed. Ethically, it’s fundamental in my view that whatever we are doing should be coupled with action to prevent diabetes,” he says.

Professor Naomi (Dinky) Levitt, Director of the Chronic Disease Initiative for Africa, tells Spotlight that at a national level, there are many good policies, but if the implementation at a provincial level doesn’t happen a plan like this won’t make a difference.

“If you don’t have the wherewithal to make sure that implementation takes place and at so many different levels, you’re not going to see a difference,” Levitt says. “The National Strategic Plan talks about people-centeredness. What we need to do is we need to actualise those sentiments so that we healthcare providers have a system in place that enables people to have the best outcome and we don’t [currently],” she says.


90% of people over 18 should know whether they have raised blood glucose levels

Kengne quotes IDF figures indicating that in 2021 about 4.2 million people in South Africa had diabetes but only around 55% of them had been diagnosed – far below the 90% target.

Currently, he says the country relies mostly on a hospital-based model of detecting diabetes using opportunistic screening.

“But if you’re sitting with currently only around 55% detected, it means that that approach is not reaching everyone,” he says. As Spotlight previously reported in depth, South Africa does not have a mass screening programme for diabetes.

Kengne suggests moving screening from just the hospital setting to the community by using a “two-stage approach”. In this approach, community healthcare workers screen for diabetes in the community by identifying those with common risk factors for the disease like those who are older, are obese, have hypertension, or have a family member with diabetes, and testing their blood sugar levels with a handheld glucometer. If a high blood sugar reading occurs, the patients will then be referred to a primary care clinic for further testing – ideally with a fasting glucose test and eventually oral glucose tolerance test.

To reach the 90% target, community-orientated primary healthcare would need to be improved so there are opportunities for household-level screening, according to Mash. “Obviously, there’s a lot of technical issues around that and around competency of community health workers and so on to do that,” he says. “To be honest, you know the evidence that that sort of screening for diabetes leads to better outcomes is also not that solid.”

For Levitt, the indiscriminate screening of all persons over 18 is “wasteful”. She argues that we need to identify the people who are most at risk and then screen those. She says there is also a need for a screening tool that has been developed and validated in our setting.

In 2021 about 4.2 million people in South Africa had diabetes but only around 55% of them had been diagnosed – far below the 90% target. – Prof Andre Kengne

If screening does take place, Levitt advises focussing on persons who are over the age of 45, and are overweight, as well as pregnant women – due to the risk of gestational diabetes.

Mash raises another concern – the possibility that expanded screening efforts may result in more people being diagnosed than what the public healthcare system can cope with. “If we were to go out and find the other [about half of people with diabetes and send them to the primary care system, I’m not sure the system would cope,” Mash says.


60% of people with raised blood glucose levels should receive interventions

There are not a lot of statistics available for the percentage of people diagnosed with diabetes who are receiving treatment, according to Kengne. But based on what happens with other diseases in the public health sector, like hypertension, it is likely, he suggests, that once you have received a diagnosis some form of treatment will be provided.

He adds that it can then be inferred that about the same number of people who are diagnosed with diabetes will be receiving some form of treatment or intervention, which means that it is likely that the country is probably on track to reach the 60% target.

“Anecdotally, I think if you do get diagnosed at a primary care facility. I think the majority of people will probably end up with medication of some kind. There will be some sort of intervention, so I would imagine we’re doing better [on this target],” says Mash.

However, according to Kengne, just because someone is receiving treatment or some kind of intervention for diabetes, doesn’t mean they have the disease under control. Diabetes often occurs alongside other diseases such as hypertension and so cannot be treated in isolation. He adds that more research is needed into the quality of treatment being provided to those with diabetes.

To improve the quality of treatment, which will tie into better blood glucose control, Kengne suggests making it easier for patients to pick up their medications by continuing to decentralise dispensing of chronic medication as it will increase the uptake and compliance with treatment. He also stresses the importance of treatment monitoring and the upskilling of healthcare workers to better assist people with diabetes.


50% of people receiving interventions have their diabetes under control

Control for Type 2 diabetes is classified as having blood glucose levels that are either controlled, poorly controlled, or uncontrolled. Spotlight previously reported that control of blood glucose is measured in terms of Haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) levels. A person living with Type 2 diabetes is considered to have controlled blood sugar levels when they consistently have an HbA1c reading of below 7. Poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes is an HbA1c of between 7 and 10, while uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes is having an HbA1c of more than 10.

There is currently no national data available on how many people with diabetes have their blood sugar under control, according to Kengne. But when looking at smaller studies done at district level, the figures are very low.

In a 2015 study conducted in 12 clinics in the Tshwane district, only 27% of those with diabetes who were on treatment were able to achieve adequate levels of blood sugar control. Kengne also refers to preliminary results from a study conducted by the SAMRC in Cape Town (which has not been published yet) that showed that about 20% of those with diabetes who are on treatment achieved the target blood sugar levels for control.

“Overall, I think we’re really very low on the control of those with diabetes who are already on treatment,” he says. “It really speaks to the challenge of achieving and maintaining diabetes control.”

He adds that achieving and maintaining blood sugar control with diabetes is challenging, as achieving control once does not guarantee it will stay that way. It requires continual monitoring and adjusting treatment when and where needed.

Patients need to be empowered, not merely given medication

For Levitt, it is concerning that in South Africa tests and treatment for diabetes are available for free, but we’re seeing such poor control when compared to some other countries in Africa where the tests and drugs aren’t free.

“On the one level, we need to equip the person with diabetes and their families with the wherewithal to have a good outcome,” she says. “[On the other level] we need to operate within a healthcare system that provides what is needed, and it’s not just drugs. It’s much more complex, much more.”

For example, she says that people with diabetes often also have high blood pressure and so blood glucose control would need to go hand in hand with blood pressure control. Another aspect that makes diabetes complex is managing complications. To prevent complications, patients need to be educated in a way that enables them to take care of themselves so they can have better outcomes.

Mash also makes this point. He says simply giving drugs to people living with diabetes is not enough to help them manage the disease. Treatment and managing diabetes require self-management and lifestyle changes, which is where the healthcare system might be failing patients.